Saturday 28 December 2013

Music contest between Apollo and Pan

 
Music contest between Apollo and Pan

In Greek mythology, Pan, the Greek god of shepherds and nature, was a great musician who is known for his invention of the syrinx, or Greek pan flute. The sound of his pipes was so sweet that he grew proud, and believing himself greater than the chief musician of the gods, Apollo, he challenged Apollo to a musical duel. Apollo consented to the test, for he wished to punish Pan's vanity, while overlooking his own well-known arrogance. Pan and Apollo chose the mountain Tmolus to be the judge of the contest, since no one is so old and wise as the mountain.
Pan ,Apollo, and Tmolus

    When Pan and Apollo came before Tmolus for the duel, their followers came with them, to hear, and one of those who came with Pan was a mortal named Midas. First Pan played; he blew on his reed pipes, and out came a tune so wild and yet so coaxing that the birds hopped from the trees to get near; the squirrels came running from their holes; and the very trees swayed as if they wanted to dance. The fauns laughed aloud for joy as the melody tickled their furry little ears, and Midas thought it was the sweetest music in the world.
    Then Apollo rose, and in his hands he held his golden lyre. When he touched the strings of the lyre, such music stole upon the air as never god nor mortal heard before. The wild creatures of the wood crouched still as stone; the trees kept every leaf from rustling; earth and air were as silent as a dream. When Apollo stopped playing, it was like bidding farewell to one's father and mother.

Apollo, Tmolus, Pan, and Midas

    When the spell of Apollo's music was broken, the hearers fell at Apollo's feet and proclaimed him the winner. All but Midas, who alone would not admit that the music was better than Pan's. ‘You will have ears to match the mind you have in judging,’ said Apollo, and with these words Apollo caused Midas to have ass's ears.


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Friday 27 December 2013

Dionysus

Dionysus

In Greek mythology, Dionysus was described as god of wine, vegetation, pleasure, and festivity. Dionysus invented wine and spread the art of tending grapes. He had dual nature, bringing joy and divine ecstasy , and on other hand, brutal and unthinking rage, reflecting two sides of wine nature. Dionysus was usually accompanied by a troop of Satyrs and Mainades (female devotees or nymphs). Dionysus was the son of Zeus and Semele, the daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia. Dionysus was depicted as either an older ceased god or a pretty effeminate, loop haired youth. (update soon)

Dionysus love
  Althaea : Ariadne : Aura : Beroe : Erigone2 : Nicaea (update soon

Related
   The Twelve Olympians :  : 

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Tmolus

1:Tmolus:- In Greek mythology, Tmolus was the god of mountain Tmolus in Lydia, who judged the musical contest between Apollo and Pan
musical contest between Apollo and Pan
Tmolus



As a mountain god, he was described as the son of Gaea (mother earth).  

 2: Tmolus:- In Greek mythology, Tmolus was a mythical king of Lydia, and son of Sipylus and Chthonia. He was the husband of Plouto and step father of Tantalus.   

 3:Tmolus:- In Greek mythology,  Tmolus was described as the son of Ares and Theogone and was husband of Omphale. When Tmolus was killed by a bull on the mountain that bears his name, his widow Omphale, became queen of Lydia.

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Plouto

Plouto

In Greek mythology, Plouto or Pluto was an oceanic nymph, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. According to one ancient scholiast, Plouto was daughter of Cronus, identifying her with Demeter, the goddess of agriculture prosperity. Plouto was loved by Zeus. She bore him Tantalus. According to some versions, Plouto was married to Tmolus, the step father of Tantalus.  

INDEX

Semele\Thyone

  
Semele waiting for Zeus


In Greek mythology, Semele was the daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, and only moral to be the parent of god (Dionysus). Semele was loved by Zeus and Zeus frequently visited her secretly. When Zeus wife, Hera learned of their illicit affair. 
                             Hera appeared to Semele in the form of her friend or aged nurse. Hera pretended not to believe her lover was actually Zeus and planted seeds of doubt in Semele's mind. Semele asked Zeus to grant her wish, Zeus to please his beloved promised on the River Styx to fulfill her dearest wish. Semele wished that he appear before her in his full glory. Zeus begged her not to ask this, she persisted and he was forced by his oath to comply.
Zeus and Semele
                          
 Zeus appeared to her as the god of thunder, and Semele was killed by the fire of lightning. However Zeus saved her child, Dionysus, with whom she was pregnant, by sewing the unborn baby into his thigh. A few month later Dionysus was born. 
                       According to some versions, Dionysus(Zagreus) was son of Zeus and Persephone (zeus and persephone), and was killed by the Titans. Zeus gave Dionysus torn up heart in drink to Semele, who became pregnant this way or Zeus swallow the heart himself in order to beget his seed on Semele. 
                                When Dionysus grew up, he rescued his mother from underworld and she became a goddess of Mt Olympus, with new name Thyone. In Greek mythology, Thyone was described as the goddess of the inspired frenzy which seized the female devotees in the course of the Bacchic orgy.    

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Monday 16 December 2013

Pheme

Pheme
In Greek  mythology, Pheme was the goddess or personification and spirit of rumor, report and gossip. Pheme was said to gain pleasure in the affair of mortals and gods, then repeat what she learned, starts with just a whisper but repeating it louder each time, until everyone knew.

Pheme was depicted as winged goddess with dual nature, fame and good repute in positive sense and infamy and scandal in negative sense. Pheme was the daughter of Gaea (earth) or Elpis (hope). Pheme was also described as Zeus messenger, because often it was impossible to trace the source of a report or rumor, which was said to come from Zeus.

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Elpis

Elpis

In Greek mythology, Elpis was goddess or personification and spirit of hope. Elpis with evil spirits were trapped in the vessel, by Zeus. Zeus gave to vessel to the first woman, Pandora, with warning never to open the vessel.  When Pandora opened the vessel all the evil spirits escaped and only Elpis (hope) remained to comfort mankind. Elpis  was described as the daughter of Nyx (night) and as the mother of Pheme.  Elpis was depicted as young woman carrying flowers in her arms.

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Syrinx

Syrinx being pursued by Pan

In Greek mythology, Syrinx was a Naiad nymph of the river Ladon in Arcadia, and a follower of Artemis. Once while returning from the hunt, Syrinx met Pan. Pan was sexually aroused and wanted to make love with her. Syrinx ran to the river (Landon) edge and asked for assistance from river nymphs. In answer, she was transformed into hollow water reed.

When the air passed through the reeds, it produced a plaintive melody. Pan, still infatuated, took some reeds, because he could not identify which reed she became. Cuts the reeds into seven or nine pieces joined them side by side in gradually decreasing lengths and formed the musical instrument bearing the name of his beloved Syrinx.

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Wednesday 11 December 2013

Lotis

                 
Lotis, spring nymph
  In Greek mythology, Lotis was a Naiad nymph of springs of the river Sperkheios. During the feast of Dionysus, celebrated by custom each third winter, was attended by Lotis. Priapus saw Lotis and got attracted towards her beauty. Priapus was looking for the chance to get alone with Lotis.
Feast of Dionysus

Dionysus supplied wine and wine does it's magic, at night, bodies lay everywhere, conquered by sleep. Lotis was sleeping further away, tired from partying. Priapus seized this opportunity and silently came near Lotis. He draw the cover from her feet and start the happy road to his desires.
Priapus and Lotis
But Lotis was awakened by a sudden cry of a donkey and she ran off. For spoiling his opportunity, Priapus kill the donkey.

 Priapus pursued Lotis until the gods took pity on her and turn her into Lotus tree. Later Dryope picked a flower off the tree, Lotis had became, and was transformed into a black poplar.

INDEX

Priapus

 
Priapus

In Greek mythology Priapus or Priapos was described as the son of Aphrodite (the goddess of love) by Dionysus (the wine god). According to legend, Hera cursed him with impotence, ugliness and foul-mindedness while he was still in Aphrodite's womb, in revenge for the Paris having the temerity to judge Aphrodite more beautiful than Hera (the judgement of Paris). According to some version, Aphrodite had an affair with Zeus, so jealous Hera cursed Arisedite to core a deformed son (Priapus). 
                       The other gods refused to allow Priapus to live on Mt Olympus, and threw him down to Earth, leaving him on a hillside. He was eventually found by shepherds and was brought up by them. Priapus joined Pan and the satyrs as a spirit of fertility.Priapus was the god of the bounty of the vegetable garden. He was also honoured as the protector of sheep, goats, bees, the vine, gardens, fruit plants and male genitalia. 

                                 Priapus was described to have lustful nature and permanent erected penis. Priapus is marked by his absurdly over sized, permanent erected penis, which gave rise to the medical term priapism.The ass was sacrificed in his honour, probably because the ass symbolized lecherousness and was associated with the god’s sexual potency.

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Tuesday 10 December 2013

Leuce

Leuce
In Greek mythology, Leuce (or Leuke) was the beautiful nymph, daughter of Oceanus. Hades fell in love with her and abducted her to the underworld. Leuce lived out the span of her life in Hades realm (kingdom). After Leuce death, Hades created a memorial of their love in the Elysian field, by transforming her into white poplar. 
 
two sides of poplar leave

The white poplar was sacred to Hades. When Hercules return from the underworld, he was crowned with poplar leaves. 

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Minthe

Minthe
In Greek mythology Minthe (or Mintha), was a naiad nymph associated with the river Cocytus. Minthe was loved by the underworld god, Hades. Minthe became concubind (a woman who lives with a man but has lower status than his wife or wives) of Hades. When Minthe claimed to be superior to Persephone (wife of Hades), Minthe was transformed into mint plant by Persephone or Demeter or according to other version was changed into dust, from which Hades caused the mint plant to grow. 
 
Mint plant

In ancient Greece, mint was used in funeral rites and as an element in the fermented barley drink.

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Monday 9 December 2013

Leucothoe

 
Leucothoe, Princess of Persia

Leucothoe or Leukothoe was princess of Persia (Achaemenids), and daughter of Orchamus and Eurynome, the king and queen of Persia. Helios, the sun god, was attracted towards Leucothoe's beauty. Helios, who was able to see all deeds from both morals and immorals, only gazed Leucothoe. One night, Helios gained entrance to Leucothoe's chamber, where Leucothoe was with her twelve maids. Helios transformed himself into Leucothoe's mother, Eurynome, and appeared before them.



 In form of Leucothoe's mother, Helios asks maids to leave the chamber as she waited to speak with her daughter in privacy. When room was was left without a witness. Helios took her in his arms and kissed her. Fear gripped Leucothoe heart, she known something is wrong. Helios resume his own true shape and seduce her.
Helios and Leucothoe

                            Clytie, an oceanid nymph loved by Helios, abandoned her for Leucothoe, was jealous and in anger spread the tale of Leucothoe shame. Clytie make sure that Leucothoe's father, Orchamus, knew the tale of Leucothoe shame. Orchamus came to know about it, even Leucothoe told that Helios ravished her againist her will, in anger he ordered to buried her alive deep in the earth. Helios tried to save her, but he was late, she was crushed by the weight of earth. Helios changed Leucothoe lifeless body into a incense plant (shrub of frankinese). According to some versions, Thersanon was son of Helios by Leucothoe. Apollo was also associated with sun, and was even identified with Helios, the sun god.So in some versions Apollo is described who seduce Leucothoe.

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Clytie

 
Clytie

In Greek mythology, Clytie (or Klytie) was an water nymph, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. Clytie was loved by sun god, Helios. He abandoned her for the love of Leukothoe. She was so angered by Helios treatment that she spread the Leukothoe affair story, and even told Leukothoe's father, Orchamus, about the affair. 
 
Clytie gazing sun

 Orchamus in anger put his daughter to death by burial alive in the earth. Clytie intended to who Helios back by taking away his love, but her action only hardened his heart against her. She stripped herself and sat naked with neither food nor drink for nine days on the rock staring at the sun. After nine days she was transformed into the sun gazing purple flower of the heliotrope. 


Later the writers described Clytie was transformed into sunflower.

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Saturday 7 December 2013

The Judgement of Paris

The Judgement of Paris
The judgement of Paris was contest between the three most beautiful goddess of Olympus. According to legend, the story begin at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, where all gods and goddess, as well as various mortals were invited, except Eris (the goddess of discord). 
Eris with golden apple
Eris in anger, threw down among the guest a golden apple inscribed with the word "KallistĂȘi"-'to the fairest one'. Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple.

 The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who not wanted to favor one of the goddess. So Zeus commanded Hermes to lead the three goddesses to Paris of Troy (shepherd prince) to decide the issue.  After bathing in the spring of Mt Ida, the goddesses appeared before Paris. Zeus gave permission, to set any condition Paris required for judging goddesses beauty, so Paris asked the goddesses to undress before him. In some version the goddesses themself chose to disrobe. 

Still Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful. So goddesses resorted to bribes. Hera tried to bribe Paris with control over all Asia and Europe, while Athena offered wisdom, fame, and glory in battle, and Aphrodite offered the most beautiful mortal woman in world as a wife. Paris chose Aphrodite as most beautiful and the rightful owner of the golden apple. The most beautiful mortal woman was Helen, who was already married to Menelaus, the king of Sparta. Paris abducted Helen with help of Aphrodite, which led directly to Trojan War.

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Adonis

Adonis
In Greek mythology Adonis was the son of Myrrha and her father Cinyras. Myrrha turned into Myrrh-tree by Gods. As Myrrh-tree, Myrrha gave birth to Adonis. Aphrodite happens by the Myrrh-tree and seeing him, take pity on the infant.
Birth of Adonis
Aphrodite fell in love with the beautiful youth possible because she had been wounded by Eros' arrow. Aphrodite sheltered Adonis as new born baby and took him down into underworld so Persephone can care of him. Adonis grows into a strikingly handsome young man and Persephone had made him her lover. Aphrodite later demanded Adonis for herself, but Persephone refused to gave him back. The dispute between the two goddesses was settle by Zeus or Calliope on Zeus behalf. The decision was that, Adonis would spend a one-third of the year with Aphrodite, a one-third of the year with Persephone, and a one-third of the year with whom he wishes to spend with (Adonis choose Aphrodite). 
Aphrodite and Adonis
Adonis begins his year on the earth with Aphrodite. Adonis had great passions of hunting, although Aphrodite was not naturally a hunter, she takes up the sport just so she can be with Adonis. They spend every waking hour with one another, Aphrodite anxiety begins to grow over her neglected duties and she was forced to leave him for a short time. Before leaving, she gave Adonis warning that do not attack an animal which shows no fear. Adonis agreed to her advice, but secretly doubted her skills as a huntress. After Aphrodite leaves, Adonis comes across a wild boar, much larger than any he had ever seen. Wild boar attacked Adonis, castrated him and Adonis dies from a loss of blood. 
Aphrodite mourning on Adonis death

Adonis died in Aphrodite's arms, who came to him when she heard his groans. Wherever Adonis' blood falls, Aphrodite caused amenones (flowering plants) to grow in his memory. Aphrodite vowed that on the anniversary of his death every year there would be a festival held in his honor. It is said that, the wild boar by which Adonis was killed, was sent by Ares, who was jealous of Aphrodite's love for Adonis or by Apollo, to punish Aphrodite for blinding his son Erymanthus. Or by Artemis, to punish Aphrodite for instigating the death of Hippolytus, a favorite of the huntress goddess or by jealous of Adonis hunting skill.  On his death, Adonis goes back to underworld, and Persephone was delighted to see him again. Aphrodite realized that Adonis was in underworld and rushed to retrieve him. Persephone refused to allow Adonis to return from the underworld. 

Aphrodite and Adonis

In answer to Aphrodite's pleas, Zeus allowed Adonis to spend half the year (summer) above on earth with Aphrodite and the other half (winter) in the underworld with Persephone. Mythically, Adonis represents the cycle of death and resurrection in winter and spring. Adonis was also represented in Greek mythology, as god of beauty and desire.


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Myrrha

Myrrha

Myrrha was the daughter of Cinyras and Cenchreis, king and queen of Cyprus. Cenchreis claimed that her daughter was more beautiful than Aphrodite. So Aphrodite punished Myrrha with never-ending lust for her own father. Horrified by her forbidden desire, Myrrha attempted to hang herself, but her nurse saved her at the last minute. Distraught that she had been discovered, Myrrha told her forbidden desire to the nurse. The nurse tried to help, Myrrha to suppress her desire, but it was of no use. Finally the nurse agreed to help Myrrha to fulfill her forbidden desire, believing the sin to be a better option than suicide. 

When Myrrha's mother, Cenchreis, was away at Ceres' festival, the nurse found Cinyras drunk in his bed and told him of a girl who was deeply in love with him, giving a false name. When Cinyras asked how old the girl was the nurse responded that she was Myrrha's age. Cinyras commanded the nurse to bring the girl. So Myrrha and the nurse were able to deceive Cinyras. The affair lasted several night as these nightly sexual encounters occured in the dark while Cinyras was intoxicated and was unaware of the girl identity.

 One night Cinyras wanted to know the identity of the girl with whom he had sexual relation. Upon bringing in a lamp and seeing his crime, Cinyras drew his sword and attempted to kill her on the spot but Myrrha fled and escaped, saved because of darkness of might. 
Birth of Adonis

Myrrha flees across Arabia and pray to the gods for mercy. The gods hear her plea and change her into a Myrrh-tree, so her father can not kill her.  Eventually, Cinyras takes his own life in an attempt to restore the family's honor. In the form of Myrrh-tree, Myrrha gave birth to Adonis. According to Greek legend, the aromatic exude  of the Myrrh-tree are Myrrha's tears.  

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Melinoe

Melinoe

Melinoe was a goddess of ghosts. She wandered the earth followed a ghosts and brought madness and nightmares to men. Melinoe was the daughter of Persephone, who was visited by Zeus disguised as her husband Hades. In some version Hades is described as her father. In Greek mythology, Melinoe is described as being half dark and half light because she was daughter of Zeus(light) and Persephone(dark) or Hades(dark) and Persephone(light).

 Melinoe had the power to turn any mortal insane with her ghostly phantoms. She leads the restless spirits of the underworld to haunt the living during the night. This is said to be the reason why dogs howl at night.  

Related
Zeus and Persephone


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Tuesday 3 December 2013

Morpheus


In Greek Mythology, Morpheus was the god of dreams and the leader of the Oneiroi, the god or spirit of dreams. Morpheus was the god responsible for the dreams and had amazing ability of appearing in dreams of morals in any form. When in arms of Morpheus people would enjoy a sound sleep, but would also see dream about their future or even coming event. Morpheus was the dream messager of gods, communicating the divine messages through images and stories, created as dreams.

Morphuus and Iris

Morpheus had a talent to mimicking any human in the dreams and was able to take any form he wanted. In his real form Morpheus is described with wings on his back. Morpheus was able to oversee the dreams of heroes and kings and influence the dreams of gods. Morpheus was the son of Hypnos (sleep) and Pasithea (relaxation and rest). According to other version, he was son of Nyx (night).

Morpheus and Iris

The dream world of Morpheus was the place were his family lived, whiled shaping dream of mortals as he wished. Morpheus slept in a cave full of poppy seed. The river Lethe, in the underworld, known as the river of forgetfulness, flows through his cave. According to some version the cave was guarded by to monsters, who materialized the fear of any uninvited visitors. The drug 'morphine' is named after him.


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Oneiroi

In Greek mythology, the Oneiroi were the dark winged spirits of dreams. They emerged each night like a flock of bats from their cavernous home in Erebus, the land of eternal darkness beyond the rising sun.  Oneiroi were described as sons of Nyx (without any union) or of Nyx (night) and Erebus (darkness), and were brother of Hypnos (sleep), Thanatos (death), Geras (old age), and other being.
Morpheus, the leader of the Oneiroi and Iris

                         According to other version Oneiroi were thousand, sons of Hypnos (sleep) by Pasithea. Mainly four of Oneiroi are mentioned: Icelus was responsible for creating true dream, making them more realistic. Phobetor was the creator of scary dream and was personification of nightmare, taking the form of huge and scary animal. Phantasus was one creating the face and illusional dreams and had no form.     Morpheus, the leader of the Oneiroi, described as a god who appeared in the dreams of kings and heroes in guise of man, delivering messages from the gods and influence the dreams of gods.

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Astraeus

Astraeus or Astraios was the Titan god of the stars and planets, and the art of astrology. Astraeus was the son of Crius and Eurybia. Astraeus was also described as the god of dusk. Astraeus was married to Eos, the goddess of dawn. Together as nightfall and daybreak they produce many children who are associated with what occurs in the sky during twilight. They had many sons Anemoi (winds), Astra Planeta (Planets) and one daughter Astraia, the goddess of the constellation Virgo. 

According to othe version, Astraeus is described the son of Tartarus and Gaea and referred to him as one of the Gigantes.

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Anemoi

Anemoi were the gods of the four directional winds. In Greek mythology, Anemoi were described as the sons of Astraeus (god of stars and planets) and Eos (goddess of dawn). Anemoi were closely connected with the season.
Boreas


Eurus


Notus


Zephyrus
Boreas was the north wind and bring on cold and winter air. Notus was the south wind and bring on storms of late summer. Zephyrus was the west wind and bring on light spring and early summer breezes. Eurus the east wind, was not associated with any of the three Greek seasons. The wind gods (Anemoi) were represented as either winged man-shaped gods or horse like divine.

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